The defeat of world war I led to a hard peace treaty for the Ottoman Empire. The Treaty of Sevres (1920) took away from Turkey all its European territory, with the exception of a small area around Constantinople (now Istanbul); demilitarized the straits between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean, opening them to ships of all nations and placing them in an international commission; Armenia and an autonomous Kurdistan in Eastern Anatolia; the region around the Greeks of Izmirto; restored capitulations; Turkish finances under foreign control. Separate agreements have assigned to France and Italy parts of Turkey left to the Turks as spheres of influence. The Turkish and Greek governments are committed to providing the British, French and Italian governments with all necessary facilities to obtain a sufficient supply of water to meet the needs of the personnel responsible for the conservation or protection of the aforementioned graves, cemeteries, leg towers and memorials, as well as for the irrigation of the country. Licences for the use of commercial property or reproduction of literary or artistic works granted before the war by or to nationals of allied powers or persons residing or operating on their territory, on the one hand, on or by Turkish nationals, are deemed to be cancelled from the beginning of a state of war between Turkey and the allied power concerned. However, within six months of the entry into force of this contract, the former beneficiary of such a licence has the right to require the rights holder to issue a new licence whose terms are set by the Joint Court of Arbitration within the meaning of Section V of this party in the event of an agreement between the parties. The court has the power, if circumstances require, to simultaneously set the amount it deems fair to the use of property during the war. To maintain peace, the Greek government is committed to respecting the following restrictions on the islands of Mytilene, Chios, Samos and Nikaria: among many agreements, there was a separate agreement with the United States, the Chester concession. In the United States, the treaty was rejected by several political groups, including the Committee against the Treaty of Lausanne (COLT), and on January 18, 1927, the U.S.
Senate refused to ratify the treaty by 50 votes to 34, six votes less than the two-thirds requested by the Constitution.  As a result, Turkey cancelled the concession.  All issues arising from the recognition of the State of Egypt are settled by agreements that will be negotiated at a later date in a manner that will be resolved later between the powers concerned. The provisions of this treaty concerning the separate territories of Turkey under that treaty do not apply to Egypt. Subject to specific provisions relating to the transfer of ports and railways, whether owned by the Turkish government or by private companies, located in areas separated by Turkey under this Treaty and which have been or are likely to be concluded in a similar manner between the contracting powers concerning dealers and the retirement of staff , the transfer of the railways is subject to the following conditions: : The British, French and Italian governments have the right to entrust the maintenance of their graves, cemeteries, leg towers and memorials in Turkey to administrators appointed from their own nationals.