Information gathered by spies is playing an increasingly important role in diplomacy. Arms control contracts would be impossible without the power of reconnaissance satellites and compliance monitors. Information from espionage is useful in almost all forms of diplomacy, from trade agreements to border disputes. Convention An agreement between two or more States, often more, on matters of common interest. Although it is purportedly used for minor matters compared to what is provided for in a treaty, it often deals with important issues, indeed, of international postal laws and copyright, for example the law of the sea. Soft power, sometimes called “Hearts and Minds Diplomacy”, as defined by Joseph Nye, is the culture of relationships, respect, even admiration of others, to gain influence, unlike more compulsive approaches. Often and wrongly confused with the practice of official diplomacy, soft power refers to non-state, culturally appealing factors that can predispose people to sympathize with a foreign culture based on affinity with their products, such as the American entertainment industry, schools, and music.  A country`s soft power can come from three resources: its culture (in places where it is attractive to others), its political values (when it lives up to them in Switzerland and abroad), and its foreign policy (if they are considered legitimate and have moral authority). After the fall of Napoleon, the Congress of Vienna of 1815 established an international system of diplomatic rank. Disputes over primacy between nations (and thus the corresponding diplomatic ranks) were first raised at the Aachen Congress in 1818, but lasted more than a century until after World War II, when the rank of ambassador became the norm. Meanwhile, figures like German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck were known for their international diplomacy.
Hostage diplomacy is the taking of hostages by a state or quasi-state actor to achieve diplomatic objectives. It is a kind of asymmetrical diplomacy, often used by weaker states to exert stronger pressure. Hostage diplomacy has been practiced from prehistoric times until today.   Extradition The notion of procedure, governed by formally concluded agreements, by which refugees fleeing justice are returned from the country where they sought refuge. . . .