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Border Agreement

The share of Russian tourists in all foreign tourists who stayed in tourist accommodation establishments in 2018 was 12%. The two nations are also competing to build infrastructure along the border, also known as the Line of Actual Control. India`s construction of a new road to a high-altitude airbase is seen as one of the main triggers for a skirmish with Chinese troops in June that claimed the lives of at least 20 Indian soldiers. Soldiers from both countries regularly fought along the poorly demarcated border, called line of Actual Control (LAC). Signed in Beijing on 23 October 2013. An English text of the agreement can be found in the Indian MEA Media Center and in the UN Peacemakers database. According to Ankit Panda of The Diplomat, the 10-article agreement lists several mechanisms to reduce misunderstandings and improve communications between the two countries along their controversial border. Article VI expressly prohibits a party from actively following or following the patrols of another party. Articles VI, VII and VIII explicitly define dispute resolution procedures in “areas where there is no common understanding of the effective line of control”. The English text of the Protocol, signed in New Delhi on 11 April 2005, is available on the Bilateral/Multilateral Documents page of the Media Centre of the Ministry of External Affairs of India (MEA). You can also find a copy and summary of the protocol in the UN Peacemakers Database and the pa-X Peace Agreement Database.

The protocol aims to implement previous agreements and to “agree on the modalities for the implementation of confidence-building measures, including through procedures for the exchange of information on troop movements and the organisation of semi-annual meetings on border issues. . . .